Employment Test Glossary

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Employment Test Glossary

Admission Ticket
An admission ticket is a notification sent to you by the test administrator that contains information you will need on test day, including but not limited to where to report, what to bring and what not to bring.

Alphanumeric Data
Alphanumeric data is data consisting of letters of the alphabet and any combination of the numbers zero through nine. Note that alphanumeric data does not include punctuation marks.

Analogy
An analogy is a comparison of two sets which are related in some way. Analogies are written as "object one is to object two as object three is to object four" or "object one:object two::object three:object four."

Aptitude Test
Aptitude tests measure a person's ability to acquire a set of skills, such as intellectual or motor skills, through training. Employers often use aptitude tests to determine an applicant's possibility of future successes.

Audio Transcription
Audio transcription is a skill that involves listening to audio, either live or recorded, and accurately recording what is said. Some audio transcription may use specialized terms, such as legal or medical transcription.

Authorization-To-Test Letter
An Authorization-to-Test Letter, or ATT, is a form sent to exam applicants which notifies individuals that they are able to schedule the test. It also contains important information regarding the test experience.

Average Performance Range
The average performance range of a test is used to provide an idea of the difficulty of the test. It is the range of scores achieved by the middle 50% of test takers.

Bell Curve
A bell curve, otherwise known as normal distribution, is represented in a graph with a high peak in the middle and low sides.

Benchmark Paper
On an essay test, a benchmark paper is a paper used as a standard for a particular score. Exam scorers may have benchmark papers to reference for both high and low scores.

Bennett Mechanical Comprehension Test
The Bennett Mechanical Comprehension Test is an assessment of mechanical aptitude, including spatial perception, mechanical reasoning ability, knowledge of physical laws, and more.

Best Practice
Best practice is a technique or method that has been proven to be reliable and effective in achieving a desired result.

Biodata Assessment
A biodata assessment is a test based on the theory that past behavior predicts future behavior. Questions on a biodata assessment delve into job history, family history, and other past personal information.

Biometric Validation
Biometric validation uses biological data, such as a fingerprint, retina or face scan to identify a unique individual. Some exams will require a fingerprint scan to ensure that the correct person is taking the test.

Characters Per Minute
Characters per minute, or CPM, refers to the average number of characters an individual is capable of typing on a keyboard, phone, or other device in a one-minute time period.

Clerical Employment
Clerical employment typically refers to employment of individuals in the secretarial or administrative assistant field. Clerical skills are those needed to perform successfully in an office environment.

Composite Score
A composite score is a test score resulting from the combination of one or more test subdivisions. For instance, a reading composite score may result from combining vocabulary and reading comprehension scores.

CompTIA
CompTIA is the Computing Technology Industry Association. CompTIA provides many training and certification programs in the technology field.

Computer-Adaptive Test
A computer-adaptive test, or CAT, is a computerized exam that matches test difficulty to an examinee's responses. A test taker's responses are monitored and further test questions are tailored to the individual's ability level.

Computer-Based Test
A computer-based test, or CBT, is one in which questions are presented and answers are recorded on a computer. Computer proficiency is often not required, as a tutorial is provided at the start of the exam.

Constructed-Response Test
A constructed-response test, such as an essay test, fill-in-the-blank, or sentence completion, is one in which the examinee must construct an acceptable answer rather than simply identifying one amongst other incorrect choices.

Content Area
Content area refers to the subject area in which the exam focuses on. For instance, a pharmaceutical certification exam may have content areas of dispensing medication and working with other pharmacy employees.

Correlation Coefficient
The correlation coefficient is a statistical measure denoted by the symbol r, that assesses how trends in predicted values line up with trends in past recorded values.

Criterion-Referenced Score
Criterion-referenced scores are scores that involve comparing a test-taker's score to a subjective standard rather than the score of a norm group.

Cultural Literacy
Cultural literacy is an understanding of one's culture's values, beliefs, attitudes, idioms, and customs, as well as those of other cultures.

Decision Reliability
Decision reliability of a test measures the tendency of pass/fail decisions based on examinees' scores to be consistent throughout different editions of the test.

Dexterity
Dexterity is typically thought of in terms of manual dexterity, or the ease in which one uses one's hands to perform physical activities.

Differential Aptitude Test
The Differential Aptitude Test, or DAT, is an exam developed by Pearson to evaluate an employment candidates cognitive and perceptual skills.

Drag And Drop Items
A drag and drop item on a computerized exam is one in which the examinee is given a list containing missing elements and must drag and drop potential answers into their proper places on the list.

Eligibility Requirements
Eligibility requirements are conditions that must be fulfilled before a candidate is eligible to take an exam. For example, certain tests may require individuals to hold advanced education degrees or have a documented record of job experience.

Entry-Level
A job described as entry-level is one in which the candidate typically does not need advanced levels of experience or qualifications. Entry-level positions allow candidates to gain on-the-job experience and train for higher-level positions.

ETS Recognition of Excellence Award
This award is a formal recognition given to Praxis test-takers who have achieved a score in the top 15 percent of test-takers in previous years.

Examination Accommodations
Examination accommodations are changes made to exam conditions or requirements to allow individuals with disabilities a test-taking experience on equal footing with other examinees.

Examination Feedback
Examination feedback is a collection of responses given by test-takers to the test administrator regarding any positive or negative opinions they may have had about the exam.

Experimental Question
Experimental questions are questions on exams that are used for developing future exams and do not count toward the test-taker's score. There is no way to identify which questions are experimental and which are not.

Fluency
Fluency, when referring to language, is the ability to express oneself accurately and easily. Employers may require fluency in certain languages depending on the position being offered.

Graphing Calculator
A graphing calculator is a handheld instrument that allows individuals to graph and compare functions as well as plot and analyze data. Graphing calculators are programmable, so certain tests may prohibit their use.

Hot Spot Items
Hot spot items are questions on a computer-based exam that ask testees to use the mouse to click on and identify an area on a picture, graph, or figure.

Hunt and Peck
Hunt and peck is a typing technique using only a few fingers to visually locate each key on a keyboard before pressing it. Hunt-and-peck typists are usually much slower than those who use traditional typing techniques.

Industrial Psychology
Industrial psychology, also known as occupational psychology, is a branch of science in which the behavior of people in the workplace is studied.

Job Knowledge Test
Job knowledge tests, or JKTs, are tests given to employment candidates to evaluate their technical knowledge, skills, and abilities required to perform a job successfully.

Keystrokes Per Hour
Keystrokes per hour, or KPH, is a measurement taken on data-entry tests involving a 10-key numerical keyboard.

LaserGrade
LaserGrade, headquartered in Vancouver, Washington, is a test administrator that offers computer-based testing in centers across the United States and Canada.

Licensure Mobility
Licensure mobility is the flexibility of professional organizations to accept the validity of an individual's licensure credentials obtained in one state across other states and jurisdictions.

Median
The median is a statistical value that indicates the middle number amongst a list that is in numerical order.

Microsoft Office Suite
Microsoft Office Suite is a group of computer software programs such as Word, Excel, Access and PowerPoint. These programs give a user the capability for word-processing, spreadsheet development, database development, and slideshow presentations.

Multiple-Choice Test
A multiple-choice test is one in which a question is posed and a list of possible answers is provided for the test-taker to select from.

Multistate Bar Examination
The Multistate Bar Examination, or MBE, is a multiple-choice examination consisting of 200 questions that relate to aspects of practicing law in the United States.

Multistate Professional Responsibility Examination
The MPRE is a required exam for bar candidates in all but four jurisdictions in the United States. It is a 60-question multiple-choice exam.

National Council Licensure Examination
The National Council Licensure Examination, or NCLEX, is an exam for individuals in the U.S. and its territories who are seeking licensure in the nursing field.

Norm-Referenced Score
A norm-referenced score, in contrast to a criterion-referenced score, is a score that is compared to the scores of other individuals who have taken the same exam.

Number-2 Pencil
A number-2 pencil is a common requirement for taking many exams. It is also known as an HB pencil, and is the mid-range on the scale of hardness to softness.

Paper-Based Test
A paper-based test, or PBT, is one in which answers are marked on an answer sheet with a pencil (typically number-2), as opposed to on a computer.

ParaPro Assessment
The ParaPro Assessment is an exam developed by ETS that measures the reading, writing, and math skills of practicing or prospective paraprofessionals.

Pass/Fail Notification
A pass/fail notification is a message given at the conclusion of an exam that notifies the test-taker whether or not he or she passed. No specific score details are given, and a pass/fail notification is typically used for computer-based tests, not paper-based tests.

Passing Score
A passing score is the numerical value on an exam that is deemed by the test administrator to demonstrate competency in the given subject area.

Pearson
Pearson is an international media company whose assessment division creates and develops many standardized tests and other exams.

Pedagogy
Pedagogy is defined as the principles and method of instruction. Many of the Praxis II exams have a portion on pedagogy in various subject areas.

Percentile
A percentile is defined as the percentage of a distribution that is lower than or equal to a particular item of data. For instance, a person in the 80th percentile for weight has a higher weight than 80% of the population.

Personality Inventory
A personality inventory, or personality assessment, is a questionnaire that typically involves true/false statements to analyze and categorize a person's personality type.

Portfolio
A portfolio is a collection of items that represent an individual's work and experience. Employers in certain fields, such as education, may do portfolio assessments as part of the hiring process.

Possible Score Range
The possible score range is the range of values from lowest to highest that a test-taker has the possibility of achieving.

Practicum
A practicum is typically a college course that is designed to give students real-life experience in their field of study.

Praxis I
The Praxis I tests are exams required for teacher certification in many U.S. states. Offered in computer- and paper-based formats, the Praxis I evaluates students' reading, writing, and mathematical abilities.

Praxis II
Praxis II tests are a necessity for teacher certification in most U.S. states. Praxis II tests assess candidates' subject-area knowledge and subject-specific teaching skills.

Primary Identification
Primary identification including your name, signature, and photograph is usually required by test administrators prior to beginning an exam. Examples include passports, valid driver's licenses, and military IDs.

Project Management Professional Credential
The PMP, developed by the Project Management Institute, is a certification process for individuals in the project-management industry who are seeking to distinguish themselves from others in their field.

Prometric
Prometric is a global provider of academic, technological, professional, government, and corporate tests. Prometric not only administers tests at centers around the country, but the company also does test development and data management.

Proofreading
Proofreading is a skill that involves reading text and identifying and correcting errors. Clerical employers often administer proofreading tests to employment candidates.

Psychomotor Ability
Psychomotor ability involves the skills used to control muscle actions and movement through the mind. Psychomotor ability is often required for manual-labor jobs.

QuickBooks
QuickBooks is a financial-management software program developed by intuit. Proficiency in using and operating QuickBooks is a prerequisite for some office jobs.

Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices
Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices, or APM, is a test given to employment candidates for high-level positions that measures intellectual ability, clear-thinking ability and high-level observation skills.

Raven's Progressive Matrices
Developed by PsychCorp, Raven's Progressive Matrices is a test used to analyze an individual's ability to form perceptual relations. Scores are in a percentile format, and the test typically lasts 45 minutes.

Raw Score
Raw score simply means the number of test items you answered correctly. On a constructed-response test, raw score may be the combined score of the ratings your answers received.

Reading Level
Reading level is a numerical value that corresponds to a grade level in school. A test's reading level is on par with the level of difficulty reading material in a particular grade would have.

Reciprocity
Reciprocity refers to an agreement between one or a few states or jurisdictions to honor an individual's certification that was earned in another state.

Rubric
A rubric is a summary of standards or criteria that are used to evaluate an individual's work. Rubrics are often used for constructed-response tests in order to limit the subjectiveness of scoring.

Scaled Score
A scaled score is a score that has been converted from a raw score in order to allow easier comparison between individuals. Scaled scores are helpful in situations where different editions of tests with slight score variations are used.

Scantron
Scantron is a company that offers scanners and "bubble" answer sheets on which students fill in correct answers. The sheets are then sent through the scanner, which has been programmed with the correct answer pattern, to be graded.

Scenario-Based Question
Scenario-based questions, also called simulation-like questions, present test-takers with a realistic scenario and ask them to make decisions appropriate for dealing with the situation.

Score Interval
A score interval is the number of points separating score levels on a test. If a test has a score interval of 10, only scores that are multiples of 10 are possible.

Score Verification
Score verifications are instances in which an individual believes there was an error in scoring his test and requests to have it rescored. Score verification often costs a small fee.

Scratch Paper
Scratch paper is paper often used during a computer-based test to aid in calculating and formulating correct answers. The paper is usually provided by test administrators and collected before individuals leave the exam room.

Secondary Identification
Secondary identification, or supplementary identification, is sometimes required if a test administrator has questions about an individual's primary identification. A student ID is an example of secondary identification.

Shorthand
Shorthand is a method of writing rapidly that involves substituting symbols and abbreviations for words and phrases. Many clerical jobs will require proficiency in shorthand.

Situational Judgment Test
Situation judgment tests, or SJTs, are those in which individuals are presented with scenario-based questions to evaluate their capabilities in analyzing behaviors and tasks associated with a particular job.

Spatial Visualization
Spatial visualization is a skill often required in mechanical jobs and involves the ability to mentally rotate, twist, invert, or otherwise manipulate a given two-dimensional picture.

Standard Error of Measurement
Standard error of measurement is a statistic often used to convey the reliability of a group of test takers' scores. If a large enough number of individuals have not yet taken a specific edition of an exam, the standard error of measurement will be undefined.

Standard Error of Scoring
The standard error of scoring applies on tests in which human error is possible -- most often this would occur in constructed-response tests. The standard error of scoring describes the reliability of the process of scoring test responses.

Stenography
Stenography is defined in one of two ways. It can either refer to the process of writing in shorthand or the process of transcribing speech with a stenograph machine.

Study Aids
Study aids are tools developed by test publishers or outside companies to assist individuals in preparing for an exam. Study guides, practice exams, and web tutorials are examples of study aids.

T Score
A T score is used to determine norm scores for a standardized test. It is expressed as standard deviation units moving away from an average.

Test Administrator
A test administrator, also known as a test proctor, is an individual who is approved by the test publisher to oversee administration of the exam.

Test Center
Test centers are locations throughout the country that are designated for testing students. Some test centers are used for only that purpose, while others may be public places such as colleges, libraries, or high schools.

Tests At A Glance
Tests at a Glance, also known as TAAGs, are booklets provided by ETS to help students prepare for Praxis exams. TAAGs are provided for free.

True-False Test
A true-false test is one in which test-takers analyze statements and designate them as being either true or false.

Validity
Validity is the measurement of the extent to which a test score reflects the skills and abilities it was intended to measure.

Versant Test
The Versant Test, offered in both English and Spanish, is a test to measure an individual's speaking and listening skills. It can be used to screen job candidates who need strong speaking skills in their positions.

Voucher Payment Program
The voucher payment program is a system offered by Pearson VUE that allows employers to purchase vouchers to pay for employees' testing fees, rather than issuing individual checks.

Webinar
A webinar is essentially a seminar or workshop delivered via the Internet. Some testing companies offer webinars as a way to prepare for exams.

Words Per Minute
Words per minute, or WPM, is a measure of the average number of words an individual is capable of typing in one minute. Typically, one word is considered to be five keystrokes in length, and adjustments are made to an individual's rate for typos.

Workforce Exception Program
The Workforce Exception Program is a program offered by some test administrators that allows schools, employers, or other agencies to pay for an individual's test registration fee.

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